Friday, September 26, 2014

Particles 3

N+만 .....(only)

Placed after a number, it can mean "the minimum" amount of the noun it follows. It can also be used with other particles such as 이/가,은/는 and 을/를 and form new particles such as 만이,만은 and 만을. For every other particle, such as 에서,에게,까지, it is places in the end, making new particles such as 에서만,에게만 and 까지만.

For example:
키키만이 대학에 입학했어요. => Only Kiki was accepted at the university.
키키에게만 선물을 줬어요 => I only gave a present to Kiki.
물만(을) 마셨어요 => I drank only water.

N+밖에+negative sentence....(only,nothing but)

Very similar with N+만 with the difference that this one can only be followed by a negative sentence whereas 만 can be followed by a verb in its original form.

It cannot be used with 아니다, imperative and propositive forms.

For example:
선물을 한개밖에 못 받았어요 => I only received one present.
한국어 조금 밖에 못 해요 => I can only speak a bit of Korean

Check the difference with 만 with the following example:

교실에 키키 씨밖에 없어요 => Only Kiki is in the classroom.
교실에 키키 씨만 없어요 => Everyone BUT Kiki is in the classroom.

N+쯤 ...(around/about, approximately)

We use this in order to express something is around/about/approximately.

For example:
하루에 8 시간쯤 자요 => I sleep about/around/approximately 8 hours a day
오늘 몆 시쯤 만날까요? => Around what time are we meeting today?

N+처럼 or N+같이....(like, - comparison

With those two particles we can compare a noun to something else.

For example:
그 사람은 한국어를 한국 사람처럼(같이) 잘해요 => He speaks Korean as good as a native Korean. 

As found on Korean Grammar in Use book here are some known comparisons:

호랑이처럼 무섭다 (scary)
토끼처럼 귀엽다 (cute)
거북이처럼 느리다 (slow to act)
돼지처럼 뚱뚱하다 (chubby)
바다처럼 마음이 넓다 (generous)

N+보다 .....(compared to, more than)

With this pattern we compare two nouns.
We can also use the particle -더 which means more.

For example:
비행기가 기차보다 빨라요 => Airplanes are faster compared to trains.
여름보다 봄을 더 좋아해요 => I like spring more than summer

N+마다... (every, every once...) - frequency,repetition

It is placed after nouns that show time/period and it can be translated as "every .../every once". Sometimes it can be translated as "all".

For example:
버스가 한 시간마다 출발해요 => The bus is departing every one hour.
올림픽 게임은 4년마다 열립니다 => The Olympic Games take place every 4 years
사람마다 성격이 달라요 => Each person has their own personality.

Notice that these words can be used with two ways:

날마다 매일 every day
일주일마다 매주 every week
달마다 매월/매달 every month
해마다 매년 every year

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