Sunday, December 4, 2016

A/V+기는커녕 , N+은/는커녕 - let alone...

The grammatical form we are going to be looking at today is used as follows:

A/V+기는커녕  
N+은/는커녕

먹다 => 먹기는커녕
마시다 => 마시기는커녕
하다 => 하기는커녕

물 => 물은커녕
택시 => 택시는커녕

It can be used after particles such as 에서 => 에서는커녕 

Note: Please keep in mind that the form of N+는커녕 can be shortened into ㄴ커녕.

For example:
택시 => 택시는커녕 => 택커녕

It is similar with A/V+은/는 고사하고 and N+는 것은 고사하고 and they can be interchangeably used.

This grammatical form is used mainly with negative sentences and could be translated in English as "..let alone....".  Therefore most of the times the second clause with have 안- , 못- or 없다.

It is used to indicate that the preceding part is needless to say because it is impossible compared to the following clause which could be possible but is still, under the circumstances, difficult too.

Kinda confusing right? Let's see some examples:

택시는커녕 버스를 타고 갈 돈도 없어요.
I don't even have money to take the bus, let alone taking a taxi.

여행하기는커녕 먹을 돈도 없어요.
I don't even have money to eat, let alone go on a trip.

그녀가 노래는커녕 춤조차 못 해요.
She can't dance, let alone sing.

그는 그의 장애로 인해 달리기는커녕 걷기도 못해요.
Due to his disability he can't even walk, let alone run.


sources: 외국인을 위한 한국어 문법2, Korean Grammar in Use Advanced

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