Monday, April 28, 2014

Particles 2

Please make sure you've read this one first.

N에서...N까지 (location)

집에서 백화점까지 1시걸려요. => From the house to the department store it takes 1 hour.

N부터...N까지 (time, duration)

1시부터 2시까지 텔레비전을 봐요. => From 1 until 2 I watch tv.

In other words, 에서 and 부터 mean FROM and 까지 means UNTIL, TO depending the situation we are describing.

(으)로 (way/method,means)

Could be translated into "towards", "by", "with" and shows how something is done.

Words ending with 받침 +으로
Words ending without 받침 +로

Can be combined with particles such as 부터

한국어를 선생님으로부터공부해요 => I am learning Korean from the teacher
종이를 가위로 잘라요. => I am cutting the paper with scissors.
부산에 기차로 가요. => I am going to Busan by train.

N + 하고 or 과/와 or (이)랑 AND, WITH (connecting nouns)

They all mean "AND" or "WITH". 
In spoken language, people prefer using (이)랑 instead of 과/와 which is mostly used in more formal situations and written speech.

Words ending with 받침 +이랑
Words ending without 받침 +랑

Words ending with 받침 +과
Words ending without 받침 +와

***Please note that 과 is used with words ending in 받침 instead of 와..!!

While (이)랑 and 하고 can be attached to the final noun of the sentence, 과/와 cannot be attached. Also we cannot use all of them at once in one sentence. Meaning we cannot have the first noun using 과/와 and the second noun using (이)랑 and 하고. If we start using  과/와 we use it all the way.

삼촌과 살아요. => I live with my uncle.
연필하고 지우개가 필요해요. => I need a pencil and an eraser.
나는 제인이랑 지나랑 같이 살아. => I live with Jane and Gina.

N(이)나   (OR)

Pretty much self explanatory, right? You simply attach it on the first noun (when comparing two) or on all nouns except for the last one (usually).

Words ending with 받침 +이나
Words ending without 받침 +나

아침에 우유나 주스를 마셔요. => I drink milk or juice in the morning.

N의 (possession) OF...

This particle could have the meaning of "OF".
It shows possession.

너의 책 => That book of yours (meaning "your book")
여인의 향기 => Scent of a woman

N에게(서)/한테(서) TO..(from)

For living objects (recipients) as opposed to -에(서). Mostly used with these verbs:

주다 (to give) 오다 (to come)
선물하다 (to give a present) 전화하다 (to make a phonecall)
던지다 (to throw sth) 물다 (to ask,inquire)
보내다 (to send) 가르치다 (to teach)
부치다 (to ship sth) 말하다 (to speak)
붙이다 (to attach sth) 팔다 (to sell)
쓰다 (to write) 가다 (to go)

Even though later on we will learn more about how we talk to the elder or people of higher social status, for this case keep in mind that:
Instead of 에게/한테 we use -께.

Easier to understand with some examples, right? Ok here goes.

제이에게 전화해요. => I am calling Jay.
내 생일에 친구에게서 선물을 받았어요. =>I got a present from my friend on my birthday.
할아버지 돈을 받았어요. =>I got money from my grandfather.

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